Sexually Transmitted Diseases



By Frank Hubbell, DO

Now what?

We are not rewriting Sex in the Outdoors, published in the 1980’s, but never made into a movie, and we are not trying to define wilderness standards and morals. As the old saying goes, “SEX HAPPENS,” and since sex does happen, as a consequence, so do sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s). The experts are even claiming that the mosquitoborne zika virus can be a sexually transmitted disease, not just between mosquitoes, but in humans as well.

STD’s are some of the most commonly diagnosed and treated communicable diseases on earth. There is nothing special about the wilderness setting to prevent them from occurring. This is simply another aspect of the human condition that we, as trip leaders and professional outdoor guides, have to understand.

As promised in the last WMNL, we will review all of the STD’s with their underlying pathophysiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments.

These various diseases can be divided into three categories based on common sets of symptoms.

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Volume 26 Number 2

By Frank Hubbell, DO

HIV continues to be one of the most important infectious diseases that we have to contend with around the world. Even though it is under better control and there exists improved treatment modalities, it still remains a very important source of mortality and morbidity in both the developed nations and the developing nations.


This article is a concise review and primer of HIV, an update of the treatment modalities currently available in the fight against HIV, and a simple reminder of the remarkable negative influence that it still has around the world.


What is HIV?

HIV is short for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It is a RNA retrovirus that invades and destroys the T Helper cells of our immune system. This destruction of the T helper cells causes a progressive failure of the immune system, leading to susceptibility to opportunistic infections and generally death secondary to these opportunistic infections. Opportunistic infections are infections that would not normally be able to overcome our immune defenses.

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Malaria, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and Tuberculosis

January/February 2008 ISSN-1059-6518  Volume 21 Number 1




Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

with a focus in this issue of the WMN on Tuberculosis

by Frank Hubbell, DO

We live in a world where poverty, pollution, and politics seem to rule the day, but the reality is that these are only part of the problem. One of the largest problems that confronts mankind on a daily basis is that of infectious disease, and the billions of lives affected by this almost invisible terror. In the world of infectious disease, the big three that account for much of the mortality and morbidity around the planet are malaria, tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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