Sexually Transmitted Diseases



By Frank Hubbell, DO

Now what?

We are not rewriting Sex in the Outdoors, published in the 1980’s, but never made into a movie, and we are not trying to define wilderness standards and morals. As the old saying goes, “SEX HAPPENS,” and since sex does happen, as a consequence, so do sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s). The experts are even claiming that the mosquitoborne zika virus can be a sexually transmitted disease, not just between mosquitoes, but in humans as well.

STD’s are some of the most commonly diagnosed and treated communicable diseases on earth. There is nothing special about the wilderness setting to prevent them from occurring. This is simply another aspect of the human condition that we, as trip leaders and professional outdoor guides, have to understand.

As promised in the last WMNL, we will review all of the STD’s with their underlying pathophysiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments.

These various diseases can be divided into three categories based on common sets of symptoms.

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Vaccines – Hepatitis A and B

January/February ISSN-1059-6518 Volume 25 Number 1

By Frank Hubbell, DO

What is Hepatitis?


By definition hepatitis is inflammation of the hepatocytes, the cells of the liver. This inflammation can be caused by alcohol, drugs, toxins, autoimmune diseases, cancer, or infectious disease. In this article we will focus on inflammation caused by an infection from a virus, specifically Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV).


There are at least 5 different viruses that cause hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. The only ones for which we have vaccines, so far, are Hepatitis A and B. A vaccine for hepatitis C is in development. (There is also suspected hepatitis F and G that are currently under investigation.)


Who Cares? What does your liver do?

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